What is Fitna history?
By The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica View Edit History. Fitnah, (Arabic: “trial” or “test”) in Islamic usage, a heretical uprising—especially the first major internal struggle within the Muslim community, which resulted in both civil war (656–661 ce) and religious schism between the Sunnis and the Shiʿah.
How many Fitna are there?
four fitnahs Islamic world - The four fitnahs | Britannica.
How did the second Fitna end?
Muawiya, the governor of Syria, and a member of the Umayyad clan to which Uthman belonged, also denounced Alis legitimacy as caliph and the two confronted each other at the Battle of Siffin. The battle ended in a stalemate in July 657 when Alis forces refused to fight in response to Muawiyas calls for arbitration.
Who was the father of Ameer Muawiya?
Abu Sufyan ibn Harb His father Abu Sufyan ibn Harb was a prominent Meccan merchant who often led trade caravans to Syria. He emerged as the preeminent leader of the Banu Abd Shams clan of the Quraysh, the dominant tribe of Mecca, during the early stages of its conflict with the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
What was the first battle of Islam?
Battle of Badr Battle of Badr, (624 ce), in Islamic history, major military victory led by the Prophet Muhammad that marked a turning point for the early Muslim community (ummah) from a defensive stance toward one of stability and expansion.
Who became the 5th Caliph?
Hasan ibn Ali The fifth caliph of Islam was Hasan ibn Ali who reigned in the year 661 AD. He was the grandson of Muhammad and the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib, the...